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What activates STAT3?

What activates STAT3?

STAT3 is activated by several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6)24,25,26, which is a prime target for therapeutic intervention in several inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Still’s disease and giant cell arthritis.

What does the STAT3 gene do?

Through its regulation of gene activity, the STAT3 protein is involved in many cellular functions. It helps control cell growth and division (proliferation), cell movement (migration), and the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis).

What is STAT3 a transcription factor of?

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that mediates cellular responses to a variety of cytokines and growth factors. STAT3 activation is mediated through phosphorylation and either homodimerization or heterodimerization with another member of the STAT family.

What kind of protein is STAT3?

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor which in humans is encoded by the STAT3 gene. It is a member of the STAT protein family.

How do I activate STAT3?

Typically, STAT3 activation is induced by phosphorylation on a critical tyrosine residue (Tyr 705) that triggers STAT3 dimerization thanks to reciprocal phosphotyrosine-SH2 domain interactions.

How is Akt activated?

Akt activation is governed by a dual regulatory mechanism in which it is first recruited to the cellular plasma membrane by PIP3 through a direct interaction with the PH domain of Akt. Activated form of Akt can modulate the functions of many substrates responsible for cell-cycle progression.

What genes are regulated by STAT3?

Given its ability to regulate both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, STAT3 has been reported to promote and inhibit oncogenesis. STAT3 has been shown to induce cancers of the breast [21,22], prostate [11] and skin [23,24].

Is STAT5 a transcription factor?

Development of T Cell Immunity STAT5 serves as a signaling unit and transcription factor for cytokine receptors that utilize the common gamma chain (γc). These γc-dependent cytokines include IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15.

How is STAT3 activated?

What is the STAT3 pathway?

STAT3 modulates the transcription of a variety of genes involved in the regulation of critical functions, including cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune responses. For many cancers, elevated levels of activated STAT3 have been associated with a poor prognosis.

When is Akt activated?

Akt is activated in response to the insulin or insulin growth factor signaling (IIS). Akt exists in three isoforms Akt1, 2, 3 with a varying tissue distribution but with similar domain structure (Jones et al., 1991; Konishi et al., 2007).

How do I activate my Akt pathway?

Other studies have shown Akt can be activated in response to heat shock or increases in cellular Ca2+ concentration, via Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CAMKK). Akt binds preferentially to phosphatidic acid (PA) instead of PIP3 allowing translocation to the plasma membrane.

What does it mean to have STAT3 gain of function disease?

STAT3 gain-of-function disease (also called STAT3 GOF disease) is a rare genetic disorder of the immune system. STAT3 GOF disease is named after the gene that causes it, STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), and the effect caused by mutations in STAT3—gain-of-function, meaning that the gene’s protein becomes overactive.

What are the effects of mutations in the STAT3 gene?

Mutations in this gene are associated with infantile-onset multisystem autoimmune disease and hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2020] STAT3 (Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription 3) is a Protein Coding gene.

What happens to TFH cells when STAT3 is absent?

During viral infection, mice lacking STAT3 in T-cells display impairment in the ability to generate T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells and fail to maintain antibody based immunity. STAT3 caused upregulation in E-selectin, a factor in metastasis of cancers.

Where does STAT3 translocate to in the cell?

In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT3 is phosphorylated by receptor-associated Janus kinases (JAK), form homo- or heterodimers, and translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators.