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What is an example of plasmalogen?

What is an example of plasmalogen?

Recently, it has been demonstrated that the red blood cells of humans and great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans) have differences in their plasmalogen composition. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were found to be lower in humans than in bonobos, chimpanzees, or gorillas, but higher than in orangutans.

What is the function of plasmalogen?

Plasmalogens play a crucial role as endogenous antioxidants, protecting other PL, lipid and lipoprotein particles from oxidative stress [48]. This is due to the fact that the vinyl ether bond is preferably oxidized, while protecting the polyunsaturated fatty acids present in the sn-2 oxidation position [55].

Where is plasmalogen found?

Plasmalogens are found in almost all mammalian tissues, although the highest concentrations are found in brain, red blood cells, skeletal muscle and spermatozoa and can represent as much as 18–20% of the total phospholipids in cell membranes [1, 15].

How is plasmalogen Synthesised?

The initial two steps of plasmalogen synthesis are catalyzed by peroxisomal matrix enzymes, dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase (Dhapat) and alkylglycerone phosphate synthase (Agps), in which 1-alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) is generated by replacing the acyl chain of 1-acyl-DHAP with a long chain fatty …

What does a Lysophospholipid do?

In summary, the lysophospholipids are local mediators that regulate development, tissue regeneration and homoeostasis, but also play a role in inflammation, arteriosclerosis and cancer.

What are neutral fats called?

Triglyceride (Neutral fat)

What is the function of sphingolipids?

Sphingolipids are enriched in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and display multiple biological functions. They participate in tissue development, cell recognition and adhesion, and act as receptors for toxins.

Where are glycerophospholipids found?

Glycerophospholipids. Glycerophospholipids are the most abundant phospholipids. They are found in highest amounts in the membranes of all cells and are present in very small quantities in fat stores. In addition, glycerophospholipids are a source of physiologically active compounds.

Is Galactosylceramide a phospholipid?

A sphingomyelin/phospholipid/cholesterol bilayer is used to mimic a plasma membrane and a galactosylceramide/phospholipid/cholesterol bilayer to mimic a myelin sheath. Both galactosylceramide or sphingomyelin lipids increase the order of aliphatic tails and resistance to water penetration.

What is sphingosine made of?

Sphingosine is synthesized from palmitoyl CoA and serine in a condensation required to yield dehydrosphingosine. Dehydrosphingosine is then reduced by NADPH to dihydrosphingosine (sphinganine), and finally oxidized by FAD to sphingosine.

What activates phospholipase A2?

Phospholipase A2 initiates the activation of the arachidonic acid pathway, leading to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) formation in a reaction catalyzed by cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) (to form prostaglandin G2/H2) and thromboxane synthetase (to form TXA2).

What are 4 functions of neutral fat?

storage of fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and sterols in the form of neutral lipids serves to allocate resources for potential use in vital functions such as membrane formation, epidermal integrity, bile acid synthesis, lipoprotein trafficking, and steroidogenesis.

How are plasmalogens related to Alzheimer’s disease?

Growing evidence suggests that ethanolamine plasmalogens (PlsEtns), a subtype of phospholipids, have a close association with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Decreased levels of PlsEtns have been commonly found in AD patients, and were correlated with cognition deficit and severity of disease.

Which is a potential therapeutic target for plasmalogens?

Plasmalogen modulation has been utilised in both preclinical and clinical studies to prevent onset and/or attenuate progression of neurodegenerative diseases, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and hepatosteatosis. These studies are providing new insight into the mechanistic role of plasmalogens in disease and their therapeutic potential.

Why are plasmalogens important to the human body?

Plasmalogens are critical for human health and have established roles in neuronal development, the immune response and as endogenous antioxidants. However, the mechanistic bases of these and other biological functions of plasmalogens are not well defined.

How is plasmalogen deficiency related to peroxisomal disorders?

Inherited (primary) plasmalogen deficiency is rare (1/100,000) and has been found to be associated with peroxisomal disorders resulting from mutations /defects in the genes involved in the synthesis of peroxisomal protein transporter or enzymes required for plasmalogen syntheses [ 1 ].