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What is true about drug-resistant TB disease?

What is true about drug-resistant TB disease?

Sometimes drug-resistant TB occurs when bacteria become resistant to the drugs used to treat TB. This means that the drug can no longer kill the TB bacteria. Drug-resistant TB (DR TB) is spread the same way that drug-susceptible TB is spread. TB is spread through the air from one person to another.

How did tuberculosis become resistant to drugs?

Drug resistance in TB remains a man-made phenomenon. It emerges as a result of spontaneous gene mutations in M. tuberculosis that render the bacteria resistant to the most commonly used anti-TB drugs. Among the reasons for this, the non-compliance with the treatment regimens is signaled as the first cause.

How is extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis treated?

TREATMENT MANAGEMENT FOR PATIENTS WITH DOCUMENTED, OR ALMOST CERTAIN, XDR-TB. Use pyrazinamide and any other Group 1 agent that may be effective. Use an injectable agent to which the strain is susceptible and consider an extended duration of use (12 months (more…)

Is drug-resistant TB increasing?

Overall, TB deaths have dropped by 25% since the Global Fund was founded in 2002. Yet in 2020, disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic could lead to an additional 525,000 deaths from TB. In addition, the drug-resistant forms of the disease could rise, complicating an already dire situation.

What are the symptoms of drug resistant TB?

What are the symptoms of XDR TB? The general symptoms of TB disease include feelings of sickness or weakness, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. The symptoms of TB disease of the lungs may also include coughing, chest pain, and coughing up blood.

Can MDR-TB cause death?

MDR-TB, which is deemed a public health crisis by the World Health Organization (WHO), is caused by strains of TB bacteria that do not respond to standard antibiotics, which can lead to treatment failures or death.

What is the mortality rate of drug-resistant TB?

While TB is curable when patients adhere to the treatment regimen, MDR- and XDR-TB are more problematic. Treatment options are limited, expensive, and often toxic, and drug therapy can last up to 2 years. The report estimates mortality rates of around 40% for MDR-TB and 60% for XDR-TB.

Where is drug-resistant TB common?

The countries with the largest numbers of MDR/RR-TB cases (47% of the global total) were China, India and the Russian Federation. It is estimated that about 6.2% of these cases were XDR-TB.

Is Drug Resistant TB curable?

Only about half the people with MDR-TB around the world are successfully cured. TB treatment is lengthy and burdensome to patients and treatment providers alike. MDR-TB treatment can consist of more than 14,000 pills, plus daily injections for six months.

What is extensively drug resistant?

Extensively drug resistant (XDR) was defined as nonsusceptibility to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antimicrobial categories (i.e., bacterial isolates remain susceptible to only one or two antimicrobial categories).

What is extremely resistant TB resistant to?

Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR TB) is a rare type of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) that is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, plus any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs (i.e., amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin).

How do you know if TB is drug resistant?

Drug resistance can be detected using special laboratory tests which test the bacteria for sensitivity to the drugs or detect resistance patterns. These tests can be molecular in type (such as Xpert MTB/RIF) or else culture-based.

What are two drugs that are resistant to tuberculosis?

Pyrazinamide. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important first-line drug used to treat tuberculosis (TB) and has helped shorten the duration of chemthorapeutic regimens for TB.

  • Rifampicin. Rifampicin (RIF) is a first-line drug used to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M.
  • Fluoroquinolone.
  • Injectables.
  • What drugs cause tuberculosis?

    Multidrug-Resistant TB (MDR TB) Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) is caused by an organism that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, the two most potent TB drugs.

    What are the side effects of TB medications?

    TB drugs unfortunately have side effects – some more serious than others – such as nausea, vomiting, weight loss, decreased appetite, dry mouth and sore throat. Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, affects about one third (more than 12 million) of all people worldwide.

    How is MDR TB treated?

    MDR-TB is treated with second-line drugs, usually four or more anti-TB drugs. The minimum duration of the treatment is six months. In case of identified rifampin resistance in the specific strain of TB with which the patient is infected, the duration could be extended to 18-24 months. MDR-TB may also require surgery.