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When a trench is 4 feet or more in depth?

When a trench is 4 feet or more in depth?

29 CFR 1926.651 (C)(2) MEANS OF EGRESS FROM TRENCH EXCAVATIONS A stairway, ladder, ramp or other safe means of egress (exit) shall be located in trench excavations that are 4 feet or more in depth so as to require no more than 25 feet of lateral travel for employees.

How many types of shoring are there?

four types

What’s another word for underpinning?

What is another word for underpinning?

base footing
foundation groundwork
basis bedrock
bottom cornerstone
ground keystone

Is underpinned by meaning?

1 : support, substantiate underpin a thesis with evidence. 2 : to form part of, strengthen, or replace the foundation of underpin a structure underpin a sagging building. Synonyms More Example Sentences Learn More about underpin.

At what depth is a trench considered a confined space?

four feet

What is hydraulic shoring?

Hydraulic shoring is the use of hydraulic pistons that can be pumped outward until they press up against the trench walls. They are typically combined with steel plate or plywood, either being 1-1/8″ thick plywood, or special heavy Finland Form (FINFORM) 7/8″ thick.

What are theoretical underpinnings?

Underpinning theories are referred to, by Gregor (2002) as theories for understanding social context in IS studies. The theories are intended to explain “how” and “why” things happen in the way that they do. The theory which underpins a study is often viewed as a lens. over time and within a context.

How is shoring done?

Flying Shoring In this system also the wall plates are placed against the wall and secured to it. A horizontal strut is placed between the wall plates and is supported by a system of needle and cleats. The inclined struts are supported by the needle at their top and by straining pieces at their feet.

When vertical shores are used there must be a minimum of ___ feet?

(5) Vertical shoring rails shall have a minimum section modulus of 0.40 inch. (6) When vertical shores are used, there must be a minimum of three shores spaced equally, horizontally, in a group.

How do you use the word underpinning?

Underpinning sentence example My own sketchbooks provide the underpinning elements of what printed work is to be included in my collections. Underpinning all this is the extraordinarily accomplished conducting of Antonio Pappano.

What are 3 main protection methods against cave-ins?

To prevent cave-ins: SLOPE or bench trench walls. SHORE trench walls with supports, or. SHIELD trench walls with trench boxes.

Can Plywood be used for shoring?

However, plywood can be used to contain raveled soil and to transfer the loads imposed by this soil to the load carrying members. Regarding the general application of plywood as a sheeting member for shoring and support systems in trenches and excavations, please see paragraph 1926.652(c)(3) or (4), Option (3) or (4).

What are the four trench hazards that could exist?

What are the hazards associated with trenching and excavation?

  • Cave-ins or collapses that can trap workers.
  • Equipment or excavated soil falling on workers (e.g., equipment operated or soil/debris stored too close to the excavation).
  • Falling into the trench or excavation.
  • Flooding or water accumulation.

What is vertical shoring?

Hydraulic Vertical Shores are a lightweight shoring device that can be installed by a single worker as fast as the trench is excavated. Vertical shores are used in linear production applications, irregular size pit applications and other situations requiring spot bracing for repairs, inspections, etc.

What is shoring and underpinning?

The arrangement employed to prevent a damaged structure, due to either foundation settlement or other reasons from collapse, is called shoring. Shoring and underpinning. The arrangement employed to prevent a damaged structure, due to either foundation settlement or other reasons from collapse, is called shoring.

What is the greatest danger associated with excavations?

  • The greatest risk in an excavation is a cave-in.
  • Employees can be protected through sloping, shielding, and shoring the excavation.
  • A competent person is responsible to inspect the excavation.
  • Other excavation hazards include water accumulation, oxygen deficiency, toxic fumes, falls, and mobile equipment.

What is shoring and its types?

Shoring is the process of temporarily supporting a building, vessel, structure, or trench with shores (props) when in danger of collapse or during repairs or alterations. Shoring comes from shore, a timber or metal prop. Shoring may be vertical, angled, or horizontal.

What is the use of shoring?

Shoring is used to support a structure to prevent a collapse. The most common shoring techniques that we encountered are during the early stage of construction which is an excavation. Shoring is intended to support a deep excavation to prevent the retained soil overturns and eventually cause a project mishap.

What are the types of underpinning?

  • Mass Pouring. The most commonly and traditionally used method of underpinning is mass pouring.
  • Beam and Base Method. Another method of underpinning involves the use of beam and base.
  • Pile Method. If you opt for the pile method, the general contractor drives piles at equal distances along both sides of the wall.

What is the meaning of underpinnings?

1 : the material and construction (such as a foundation) used for support of a structure. 2 : something that serves as a foundation : basis, support —often used in plural the philosophical underpinnings of educational methods.

What is the safest way of entering and exiting a deep excavation?

Prevent people and materials falling in – with barriers strong enough not to collapse if someone falls against them. Keep plant and materials away from the edge. Avoid underground services – use relevant service drawings, service locating devices and safe digging practice. Provide ladder access to get in and out.

Which of these is known as the greatest danger associated with excavations select the best option?


What is meant by shoring?

Shoring, form of prop or support, usually temporary, that is used during the repair or original construction of buildings and in excavations. Temporary support may be required, for example, to relieve the load on a masonry wall while it is repaired or reinforced.

What is the purpose of underpinning?

Underpinning is a process used to repair, strengthen, or increase the depth of an existing foundation by lowering the footing to allow it to rest on more supportive soil.

How deep can you dig without shoring?

Trenches 5 feet (1.5 meters) deep or greater require a protective system unless the excavation is made entirely in stable rock. If less than 5 feet deep, a competent person may determine that a protective system is not required.

What is speed shoring?

Speed Shore’s aluminum hydraulic Vertical Shores* are the safest, most versatile means of shoring an excava- tion. Typically, one worker can safely shore a trench as quickly as it is excavated, allowing the excavator to operate at full digging capacity.

What is the basic type of shoring?

Shoring systems consist of posts, wales, struts, and sheeting. There are two basic types of shoring, timber and aluminum hydraulic.

Which type of soil is most common?


Is underpinning covered by insurance?

Is underpinning covered by insurance? Underpinning can strengthen the foundation of your house and prevent further damage down the line. It’s a great idea and can make your home studier for many years to come. Unfortunately, underpinning is not usually covered by home insurance.