What did Clever Hans demonstrate?
Clever Hans, German der kluge Hans, a performing horse in Berlin in the late 19th and early 20th centuries celebrated for demonstrating remarkable intelligence. The feats performed by the horse were eventually explained as simple behavioral responses to subtle cues provided (perhaps unintentionally) by his handler.
What is the Clever Hans phenomenon quizlet?
Clever Hans Phenomenon. guided response by unintended visual or auditory cues. -the subtle and unintentional cueing of the subject by the experimenter could be attributed to the experimenter’s expectancy.
Who was Clever Hans owner?
Wilhelm von Osten
“Clever Hans,” an Orlov trotter horse (~1895—~1916) and his owner and teacher Wilhelm von Osten (1838—1909). Figure 2.
How did Mr von Osten test his hypothesis quizlet?
Mr. Osten tested his hypothesis by training Hans, his horse to add, subtract, multiply and divide. The horse can then do the operations, as Osten has commanded by answering through lifting its foot.
Who debunked Clever Hans?
Even after this official debunking, von Osten, who was never persuaded by Pfungst’s findings, continued to show Hans around Germany, attracting large and enthusiastic crowds.
What is the central message of the story of Clever Hans?
This book gives insight into the way we think about things. “Clear thinking is the hallmark of psychological science.” These opening words from “The Horse That Won’t Go Away: Clever Hans, Facilitated Communication, and the Need for Clear Thinking” provide the theme for a clever book about why we hold erroneous beliefs.
Can Clever Hans read?
Hans was said to have been taught to add, subtract, multiply, divide, work with fractions, tell time, keep track of the calendar, differentiate between musical tones, and read, spell, and understand German.
What does Clever Hans taught psychology some important lessons?
Oskar Pfundt discovered that “people can unconsciously communicate information to others by subtle movements and that some animals can perceive these unconscious movements.” Psychologists now call that “The Clever Hans Phenomenon.” This is one of the first examples of studying nonverbal communication.
What errors did von Osten test his hypothesis?
Von Osten made a mistake by practicing the self-fulfilling prophecy. He inadvertently communicated the answers to Hans in such a ways that the horse can answer the questions provided. However, through controlled test by Pfungst, it was discovered.
How did Mr Van Osten test his hypothesis?
A man of science, he set out to test his hypothesis by teaching mathematics to a horse called Hans. Von Osten moved from reading and counting to basic arithmetic and again Hans mastered the new tasks, learning how to correctly answer a variety of math problems including basic square roots and fractions.
What method uncovered Clever Hans secret?
He discovered this artifact in the research methodology, wherein the horse was responding directly to involuntary cues in the body language of the human trainer, who was entirely unaware that he was providing such cues.
What was Oskar Pfungst evidence that Clever Hans was not doing math?
He was simply observing human behavior. The horse noted subtle, unconscious gestures like nods of the head, the holding of breath, and even the cessation of nodding when the correct count was reached – were accurately read by the horse as cues to stop tapping.
How did Morgan come up with his canon?
Morgan’s canon was derived after questioning previous interpretations of animal behaviour, specifically the anecdotal approach of George Romanes that he deemed excessively anthropomorphic.
Who is the author of Morgan’s canon of interpretation?
Morgan’s Canon. Morgan’s Canon, also known as Lloyd Morgan’s Canon, Morgan’s Canon of Interpretation or the principle of parsimony, is a fundamental precept of comparative (animal) psychology, coined by 19th-century British psychologist C. Lloyd Morgan. In its developed form it states that:
Are there any psychological exceptions to Morgan’s canon?
Though Morgan’s canon usually intends to avoid assumptions based on higher order processes, psychological exceptions arise with dolphins as their perceptions do not imply intentionality on their behalf. There is evidence of both self-directed and otherwise directed states of awareness that are close to those experienced by humans.
What did Clever Hans do for a living?
Clever Hans shows a number on the footboard. Hans also gave evidence of excellent memory, and apparently carried the entire yearly calendar in his head. You could ask him: “If the eighth day of a month comes on Tuesday, what is the date for the following Friday?”, and he would tell you.